Polish Citizenship by Descent

Confirmation of Polish citizenship by descent is, apart from naturalization, one of the ways to obtain Polish citizenship. However, although in both cases the result is the possibility of applying for a Polish passport and being a citizen of one of the Member States of the European Union, acquiring Polish citizenship by descent has its specificity but also brings additional benefits.

Polish citizenship is passed by the right of blood. What does it mean? If one of the parents holds Polish citizenship, it is passed to the child irrespective of whether the child was born in Poland or abroad. If you are of Polish descent, you are eligible to Polish citizenship confirmation and Polish passport application. We can make sure the process is hassle-free and as smooth as possible. So if you are interested in a Polish citizenship application, contact us for a free assessment.

Who can confirm Polish citizenship by descent?

  • To be eligible to confirm your Polish citizenship by descent, you need to have at least one Polish ancestor (Polish parent, grandparent, or great-grandparent). 
  • You need to confirm your Polish ancestor left Poland or Polish territory after 1920 when Poland got created and Polish citizenship law was introduced.

In Poland, since the first Citizenship Act came into force in 1920 to the present day, the rule of right of blood has been in force, which means that Polish citizenship is acquired by birth if at least one of the parents is a Polish citizen, regardless of where the birth took place. It does not matter whether you were born in Poland or abroad – what matters is whether at least one of your parents held Polish citizenship at the time of birth. The principle of the right of blood is subject to additional conditions, most notably in the first Polish Citizenship Act of 1920, which included in the equation the question of the child’s marital origins.

Polish citizenship by descent and the right of blood

The most significant effect of the right of blood  principle as determining the acquisition of Polish citizenship is that having a Polish ancestor – one of your parents, grandparents or even great-grandparents, means that you are most likely eligible for Polish citizenship confirmation and Polish passport application. If only your ancestor lived in Poland and did not emigrate until after 1920, when the first post-independence Polish Citizenship Act came into force, establishing who had Polish citizenship and under what conditions, your ancestor almost certainly emigrated from Poland as a Polish citizen. If the emigration took place before the Second World War, he probably also held a Polish passport.

Subsequently, Polish citizenship was passed from one generation to the next through the right of blood, unless there were circumstances along the way, as defined by law, that would cause it to be lost. Our task is to rule out these circumstances.

Specifics of acquiring Polish citizenship by descent

What is the difference between acquiring Polish citizenship by descent and naturalization, apart from the completely different conditions to be met for each of these processes?

Obtaining Polish citizenship by descent is a confirmation of your Polish citizenship – that is a confirmation that you have had it since birth.

Naturalization only results in the acquisition of Polish citizenship in principle from the moment the naturalization deed is issued.

Fullfilment of the legally required conditions for the transfer of Polish citizenship in accordance with the law and blood, and absence of the circumstances of its loss, must result in confirmation of your possession of Polish citizenship, whereas naturalization in the form of a presidential grant is entirely discretionary – that is, irrespective of your motivation and justification, the decision of the President of Poland is entirely sovereign.

Benefits of Confirmation of Polish citizenship by descent

The fact that you have held Polish citizenship since birth, and only until now have not had a formal document confirming it, does not change the fact that your children, born before you obtained formal Polish citizenship confirmation, following the principle of the right of blood, have acquired Polish citizenship and may also apply for its confirmation and submit a Polish passport application.

Is it possible to acquire a Polish citizenship by marriage?

It is impossible to acquire Polish citizenship by marriage. However, even though the spouse does not acquire Polish citizenship, he or she gets the rights to reside and work within the EU along with the Polish spouse holding Polish citizenship. In other words, third-country nationals who are spouses of EU citizens do not have their rights but enjoy several facilitations based on the exercise of their rights by the EU citizen who is their spouse. Therefore, we cannot say that an EU citizen and his/her spouse have equal rights, although in practice, for example in terms of the possibility to reside in an EU country, this is exactly what happens. 

If you are of Polish descent but you still wonder how to get Polish citizenship by descent and would like to know if you are eligible for Polish citizenship by descent, contact our friendly Polish Citizenship experts for a free consultation. We will deeply analyze your situation and ask questions about you and your family members. Then we will be able to assist you in your journey towards Polish citizenship and a Polish passport!

If you are interested in applying for Polish Citizenship,

contact us for a FREE consultation.

We are experts with great experience and +1000 confirmed Polish citizenships. We will assess your eligibility for confirmation of Polish citizenship and advice on the best way to achieve it- all for free.

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